Tuesday, May 26, 2020
4 MAT Review McMinn Lynetric Rivers Liberty University Abstract In the book, Ã¢â¬Å"Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian CounselingÃ¢â¬ , author Mark McMinn gives the reader information on how these three entities can work together in Christian counseling. McMinn offers several ways in which this can be done including the use of prayer, Scripture, confession, forgiveness, the effects of sin, and redemption in counseling sessions. Through narration of counseling vignettes displaying different results, from different approaches demonstrates for the reader integration. There are very many counselors in different walks in their faith and McMinn helps to explore this area for future and practicing clinicians. 4 MAT Review McMinnÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This client was Christian and from my estimation now looking back was just beginning their walk with Christ and not on the same maturity level that I was at that time in my walk with Christ. At that time I knew how forgiveness first and foremost is obedience to God, and secondly how it can set you free from so many emotional problems, McMinn said, Ã¢â¬Å"Forgiveness, in its theological and spiritual context, is profound, life-giving, and transforming. When we remove the religious context and think of forgiveness only as a clinical technique, we risk losing the essence of forgiveness.Ã¢â¬ (2011, p. 254) After reading this chapter it made me re-live an area in which I was not fully equipped to help client maneuver their way through. This particular chapter has allowed me to see how vital forgiveness is in a therapeutic session, and how it must be used carefully. It is made me aware of how important my Christianity is to forgiveness, but also to assess the level my client is currently on before beginning a session on forgiveness. Reflection Truthfully, there was not much about this book that gave me pause to say Ã¢â¬Å"this bothers meÃ¢â¬ . Although, I did have a few questions but not necessarily pertaining to the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s writing of the book, but more so some information of other resources cited. For example, the author stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Though Maslow would not agree that the Christian faith can help lead people to emotional health, his reports of the characteristicsShow MoreRelatedPsychology, Theology And Spirituality1267 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages A 4-MAT Review: Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in the Christian Counseling Introduction Mark McMinn is a trained psychologist who is known for his book that was written in 1996 called Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling. McMinn had advocated for the Christians who are counselors for many years. McMinn is very experienced in the work and in his field of study. One of the biggest things that McMinn stresses is the importance of establishing and maintaining a goodRead MorePsychology, Theology, And Spirituality Essay1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Mark R. McMinnÃ¢â¬â¢s (2011) Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling establish a way to bring Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality to Christian Counselors. He introduces a replica of how to integrate the three disciplines in the counseling office. The purpose of the book is to instruct counselors how to integrate categories of Psychology, Theology and Spirituality into Christian Counseling. McMinn (2011) contends that many challenges both professional and personal face ChristianRead MorePsycholoy, Theology and Spirituality1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPsychology, Theology and Spirituality: Interdisciplinary Approach to Christian Counseling Morenike Oye Liberty University Psychology, Theology and Spirituality: Interdisciplinary Approach to Christian Counseling Summary McMinn (2011) uses this book to bring out the importance of the use of spirituality (as related to Christian faith) in psychological counseling. He describes the Christian Counselors as people who are highly trained in counseling theory andRead MoreSummary and Reflection of Mark R McMinns Article Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling1607 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling by Mark R. McMinn is a conscious effort to apply all the major elements of Christian faith to the work of counselors. McMinn has created a workable blueprint for Christian counselors by writing at length about Christian faith in and out of the counseling office, psychological health, prayer, scripture, sin, confession, forgiveness, and redemption. In doing so, McMinn has successfully blended modern counseling techniques withRead More4-Mat Review: Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages4-MAT Review: Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling Liberty University McMinn, Ph.D., Mark R. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. (1996) 4 MAT Review: Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling Abstract Christian counseling is all about integrating psychology, theology and spirituality into counselor and clients lives. Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling gives insight into how these three perspectives can be used to help individualsRead MoreMcminn 4mat Essay1661 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPsychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling Sondra Rule Liberty University Summary The author of this book Mark McMinn explains how psychology, theology, and spirituality can all be integrated into Christian counseling. He discusses the difference between the three overlapping principles. He wrote this book especially for Christian counselors, pastors, as well as students so that they may clearly understand the meaning of the three principlesRead MorePsychology, Theology, And Spirituality1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe book Ã¢â¬Å"Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christianity CounselingÃ¢â¬ by Mark R. McMinn (2011) is an informative read that delves into the issues of practically integrating concepts of psychological counseling in the Christian context. Some of the questions that McMinn (2011) aspires to address in the book include whether it is appropriate to pray with clients, the role of confession during the therapy process, whether counselors should use scripture memory during the interventions as wellRead MorePsychology, Theology And Spirituality1 445 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof them. Mark R. McMinn uses his book, Psychology, Theology and Spirituality in Christian Counseling to integrate the use of spirituality in Christian counseling in a way that a counselor can use them in a counseling session effectively. McMinn makes the use of various spiritual techniques like prayer, reading the Word and confession and incorporates them in ways that make spirituality work alongside theory in a cohesive matter. McMinn explains the world pf psychology and theology is not onlyRead MorePsychology, Theology, And Spirituality Essay1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSummary Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling by Dr. Mark R. McMinn is a very insightful reading for Christian counselors. This book was originally written in 1996, but the revised in 2011 with the help of Dr. McMinn s students. McMinn begins his wonderful reading by introducing the readers to religion in the counseling office. He starts this section a potential client scenario. This client is looking for a suitable counselor who is spiritually sensitive. Different counselorsRead MorePsychology, Theology, And Spirituality891 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesReview of McMinn Summary In the book Psychology, theology, and spirituality in Christian counseling by Mark McMinn (2011), he explores the simultaneous integration of psychology, theology, and spirituality in the counseling relationship. McMinn (2011), stresses the importance of this skill throughout the text and offers insightful and effective ways to manage this. In order to further breakdown this information, McMinn (2011) discusses and evaluates six religious intervention strategies: prayer
Friday, May 15, 2020
Arab - a person from a known tribe that originated in the Arabian peninsula Amazigh - Ã¢â¬Å"free manÃ¢â¬ ; people who originate in North Africa Understanding the Origin of Arabs The Arabian Peninsula is located is the south western most region of Asia. It sits in between the continents of Asia and Africa. The Arabian Peninsula consists of the countries currently known as Yemen, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. The earliest civilizations in the Arabian Peninsula were formed in the wet parts of the region, in the southwest most corner. These early civilizations known as the Minaean, the Sabaean, and the Himyarites, utilized the regionÃ¢â¬â¢s unique geographic position to become major players in international commerce. Being so close to multiple continents and bodies of water allows for a healthy international relationship. What we know as Arab today has changed drastically. According to Dr. Peter Webb, an Arabist who studies the culture and history of the Muslim world he says, It is commonly maintained that in the 7th century AD the fortunes of the Ã¢â¬ËArabsÃ¢â¬â¢ were radically transformed when they embraced a new faith (Islam), and embarked on a lightning-fast burst of conquest by which they settled across the Middle East and laid the groundwork for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s Arab World. Although this might seem like a basic statement with some facts, it is actually a very substantial quote. This is because the term Arab has changed in its use since Arabization ofShow MoreRelatedYemen : The Original Land Of Birth Of Osama Bin Laden751 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages2008. In 2009 it declared that Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula are coming together (Both branches of the Saudi and Yemeni al-Qaeda). Shortly afterwards, the United States announced that al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula pose a significant threat, largest than Al-Qaeda Afghanistan and Iraq branches. On 25 November/ December 2009 two attacks attributed to al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, , Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the Nigerian origin was trying to bomb himself in the plane was approachingRead MoreYemen And Al Qaeda917 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesdeclared the formation of the Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula as a union with the branches of the Saudi and Yemeni al-Qaeda. And shortly thereafter, the United States announced that al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula pose a significant threat, the largest branch of al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Iraq. Two attacks were attributed to al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula. On 25 December / December 2009, trying to Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, the Nigerian origin in a bomb blast in the plane was approachingRead MoreNotes On The World And The Arabian Peninsula1186 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescentury Ã¢â¬ ¢ In the 7th century -followers of Islam spread from Arabian Peninsula -began sequence of conquest Spreading Ã¢â¬ ¢ Spreading -merchants -warriors -wanderers (nomads) -empire extended to Africa, Europe and Asia Deserts and Towns: Desert and Towns: The Arabian World and Birth of Islam The Arabian World and Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Arabian Peninsula -was covered mostly by deserts -wide varietyRead MoreA World Riddled By Social Expectations And Beauty Ideals1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction: Biology and culture are intertwined forces that affect all populations from a global perspective. This fact brings up an interesting question regarding the origins of pathology. While there are a miscellany of somatic illnesses explained by biological means, mental illnesses seem to have more of an environmental aspect to their origins, but there is controversy surrounding this detail. Even when knowing the biological etiology of mental disorders, the culture and environment is still importantRead MoreIslam s Influence On The Middle East And Beyond1711 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBefore it completed 100 years of its origin, Islam had expanded across the Middle East and beyond. The rate and success of Islam s expansion were nothing short of breathtaking. Due to MuhammadÃ¢â¬â¢s alluring message, personal charisma, political ingenuity, and his ability to app eal to his followers; their loyalty and devotion laid the foundation to IslamÃ¢â¬â¢s great conquest. When the Muslim armies swarmed through the Arab frontier, their experience with the terrain and their self-determination allowedRead MorePolitical Instability And Armed Conflicts1676 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesspecialists, the causes behind all the conflicts faced are obvious, religion and radicalism. Yet this fails to answer the question, Ã¢â¬Å"whyÃ¢â¬ , which opens the door to better understand the foundation of the present day Arab states. This questions the origins to why the Arabs chose to leave the Ottoman Empire and take support from the British Empire, which at the time seemed contradictory. Unless British involvement with the Arabs had enticed the revolution, then to what extent did European Jihadist propagandaRead MoreSpread of Islam1307 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbattle, conquering by force much of the Middle East and North Africa. The rapid spread of Islam, both politically an d as a religion, is remarkable. It is therefore fundamental to understand Islam on its own terms, its creation and spread from the Arabian Peninsula in the Seventh century. Esposito (1999) notes that although it was Ã¢â¬Å"distantÃ¢â¬ from the centers of power in the Near East, Ã¢â¬Å"Arabia was not isolatedÃ¢â¬ (p. 4). The people who lived there were aware of and affected by political, economic, and culturalRead MoreThe Gulf Cooperation Council Essay1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMethodology Final INS 611 The Militarization of the Gulf Cooperation Council to Deter Threats How Fear Shapes the Future of the Region Introduction: The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Peninsula Shield Force expresses the principle to protect against any political turmoil or security infringement in any GCC part state. The Peninsula Shield Force depends on the standard of group and coordinated security and barrier, with each GCC part state promising to ensure and protect the common security and interests ofRead MoreThe Origin Of Christianity : Mystery Cults941 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The origin of Christianity begins with mystery cults. These mystery cults were secret rituals where you have to be initiated into the group in order to be a part of the group. These cults believe in the concept of the Afterlife or paradise. In order for an individual to reach the Afterlife, you would have to reach Judgment. There are also intercessors that try to help you reach paradise however most intercessors appeal to the disenfranchised, which means that you do not have a vote. The cult ofRead MorePre Islamic Period Of Arabian People1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPeriod of Arabian People Religion is a complicated multi-dimensional phenomenon that embraces all the spheres of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Therefore, to analyze the meaning and objective effects of any religion, the researchers need to study e a particular society before the appearance of religion. It is common knowledge that understanding beliefs requires awareness of sociological, political, economic, psychological and philosophical life of a particular society. This paper is aimed to explore the Arabian societyÃ¢â¬â¢s
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight contains many themes. Some of these themes are more obvious than others. Love, lust, loyalty, deceit, trust, courage, virtue, and righteousness are most of the themes within the poem. There are some more that are hidden within the concepts of the ideas that the poem presents. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, translated by John Gardner, many different themes are addressed throughout the story. The translation by John Gardner portrays these themes by using specific characters, medieval symbolism, and various settings within the story. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a great work of medieval literature. The story is considered to be verse romance. There are not many solidÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Unfortunately, even then the poem was read incorrectly as a straight-forward and very prototypical medieval romance. Finally, in the 1960s Sir Gawain and the Green Knight reached a climax; and it welcomed an extraordinary flow of criticism. Since then, critics have steadily been writing about the poem, maintaining and proving the modern understanding that this intriguing poem is one of the best and most difficult of all medieval works (Galenet). nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;John Champlin Gardner, Jr. was born in Batavia, New York. He was raised right outside of Batavia in Alexander, New York. He went to school through eleventh grade in Alexander but ended up graduating from Batavia High School in 1951. Gardner earned a Ph.D. at Iowa State University and began his influential teaching career. In addition to teaching, John Gardner wrote many scholarly works. He focused mainly on medieval translations and editions. He wrote a translation of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight in 1965. This well respected translation is considered one of the finest and most accurate among the literary world. John Gardner was extremely talented and continuously wrote works of all different genres. He wrote plays, novels, poetry, criticism, and fiction, including Grendel in 1971. He won the National Book Critics Circle Award in 1976. Unfortunately in 1982, the great and exciting John Gardner died in a motorcycle accident. He lived a thorough andShow MoreR elated A Character Analysis of Sir Gawain as Presented In Sir Gawain and The Green Knight1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA Character Analysis of Sir Gawain as Presented In Sir Gawain and The Green Knight In Sir Gawain and The Green Knight, the character of Sir Gawain is skillfully brought to life by the unknown author. Through the eyes of numerous characters in the poem, we see Gawain as a noble knight who is the epitome of chivalry; he is loyal, honest and above all, courteous. As the story progresses, Gawain is subjected to a number of tests of character, some known and some unknown. These tests tell us a greatRead MoreAn Analysis Of Sir Gawain And The Green Knight Essay2387 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesfound in the fourteenth century poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. The poem opens with allusions to Greek and Roman history and eventually sets the story on Christmas in Camelot with King Arthur and his knights of the round table. Gawain, King ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s nephew and a knight in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, faces trials and temptations that one would typically expect from a knight of the round table. Through careful and juxtaposed analysis of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and articles by reputableRead MoreEssay Analysis of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAnalysis of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, after Gawain ventures Ã¢â¬Å"into a forest fastness, fearsome and wildÃ¢â¬ (Norton, 311), he prays that he will be able to find Ã¢â¬Å"harborageÃ¢â¬ on Christmas Eve (Norton, 312). It is the middle of winter, and Gawain has been traveling in search of the Green Knight whose head he has cut off. After he prays and signs himself three times, Gawain finds a magical castle in the midst of a winter forest. He rides to the castle and is grantedRead MoreAnalysis Of Sir Gawain And The Green Knight955 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Symbolism is a literary technique used in the classic medieval poem Sir Gawain and the Green Knight that is used to form a more captivating story and construct a deeper meaning to the plot. The color green certainly is a prominent color in the poem, especially with the Green Knight, who is literally green from head to toe. The Green Knight makes quite the entrance on his horse as he rides into Camelot disrupting King Arthur and his knightÃ¢â¬â¢s New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s Feast. The Green Knight has come to find outRead MoreAnalysis Of Sir Gawain And The Green Knight940 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the men and women appear to have different roles in the society. The men attempt to live a more noble life while emasculating the power of the women. Throughout the poem, women display hints of their potential through manipulation and trickery, traits that are uneasily recognized by men as growing power. Morgan la Fay manipulates the Lord Bercilak to assume the role of the Green Knight, and she uses him for revenge against Queen Guenevere. She engineered a planRead MoreAnalysis Of Sir Gawain And The Green Knight1054 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesquotes by C.S. Lewis and from the poems of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Beowulf, and Judith predominantly showcase the theme of bravery in medieval concepts. Bravery is immediately found in the beginning of the poem, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight where Gawain accepts the challenge of the Green Knight in lines 339-342, Ã¢â¬Å"By Guinevere, Gawain now to this king inclines and says, Ã¢â¬ËI stake my claim this melee must be mineÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Greenblatt). In this scene Gawain is trying to make a name for himself amongRead MoreAnalysis of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight866 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Sir Gawain and the Green KnightÃ¢â¬ is the classic tale of a knight of the round table who takes up the challenge of the mysterious Green Knight. The poem begins with the Green KnightÃ¢â¬â¢s sudden arrival and his declaration of his proposition: a knight may strike him, and then a year and one day from then he will return the blow. This tale is most well-known for dealing with the themes of a knightÃ¢â¬â¢s code of chivalry, loyalty, resisting temptation, and keeping oneÃ¢â¬â¢s word. While the whole poem is full ofRead MoreAnalysis Of Sir Gawain And The Green Knight1374 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe language of symbols plays a major role in medieval poetry Ã¢â¬Å"Sir Gawain and the Green KnightÃ¢â¬ is no exception. The use of symbolism gives a writer the ability to draw important connections between items in their story and the audience. The poet behind Ã¢â¬Å"Sir Gawain and the Green KnightÃ¢â¬ gives the reader a detailed description of the pentagram, his most important symbol, in order to form the key understanding of this poem. The narrator compares knightly ideals such as integrity, focus, and strengthRead More Sir Gawain and the Green Knight: An Analysis of Parallel Scenes636 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSir Gawain and the Green Knight: An Analysis of Parallel Scenes The anonymous author of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight was supposedly the first to have originated the alternation of temptation and hunting scenes, which both contribute importantly to the effectiveness of the poem (Benson 57). The two narratives are obviously meant to be read as complementary. Therefore, the parallel juxtaposition of seemingly unrelated episodes is the basic characteristic of the narrative. The narrativeRead MoreAnalysis Of Sir Gawain And The Green Knight846 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe reader. And Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is not an exception to the rule. The poem uses imagery, juxtaposition of scenes, and the action of the characters to present the numerous themes to the reader and the presentation is done throughout the work. In Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, the idea that in the world, there are man-made and natural rules that one must follow but in times, the two rules come in conflict with each other. By analyzing the two games played by Sir Gawain and the Green
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Organizational Diversity Programs and Cultures. Answer: Introduction The basic objective of this assignment is to make cultural analysis of the American multinational corporation, Nike, Inc. Nike is considered to be the largest supplier of apparel and athletic shoes and a chief manufacturer of sports equipment. The mission of Nike is to bring inspiration and innovation to every athlete in the world. This report provides brief introduction regarding the operations of the company along with its current position. Another segment of this report provides information regarding the cultural analysis and the role played by national culture in Nikes corporate culture with the help of Hofstedes cultural dimension model. Furthermore, the strengths and weaknesses of Nike have been highlighted through a SWOT analysis. Moreover, this report also presents the assessment regarding the culture of Nike along with the conclusion regarding the findings and recommendations about the factors which can assist in the development of companys culture. Nike is a multinational corporation from America that is engaged in designing, developing, manufacturing, marketing and sales of apparel, footwear, accessories, equipment and services all across the globe. Nike was founded in the year 1964 as Blue Ribbon Sports and officially acquired the name of Nike, Inc. in the year 1971. Nike is the largest supplier of apparel and athletic shoes in the world. The products of Nike are marketed under their own brand, as well as Nike +, Nike Pro, Nike Golf, Nile Blazers, Air Jordon, Air Max, Air Force 1, Converse and Hurley International. Its branch offices and subsidiaries are located in a number of countries including Brazil, Australia, Japan, Mexico, Germany, Ireland, Spain, Vietnam, Malaysia, New Zealand, South Africa, etc. Various high-profile sports team and athletes are sponsored by Nike across the globe, with highly acknowledged trademarks of the Swoosh and Just do it logo. The total number of employees employed by Nike is estimated to be 74,400 (Statista, 2017). In the year 2017, the brand value of Nike amounted to $29.6 billion and its revenue and total assets were estimated to be US$ 34.4 billion and US$ 23.26 billion (Nike, 2017). This part addresses the models and terms related to the topic. Organizational culture covers two elements. Firstly, it considers the performance of the organization in relation to the allocated tasks and secondly, it also takes into consideration the emotional feelings of employees regarding their work and organization. For supporting this idea, Andrew Brown (1998) explained organizational culture refers to the form of values, beliefs and learned ways of dealing with experience gained during the course of an organizations history, and which tend to be established in its material arrangements and in the activities of its associates. Levels of Organizational Culture Different authors propose different explanations and definitions of organizational culture. Organizational culture includes everything in the organization and assists the employees in achieving common goals. Organizational culture is defined as the set of values, artifacts and assumptions that arise as a result of interactions among the members of organization (Driskill Brenton, 2010). Organization culture is considered to be a pattern of basic assumptions that re regarded as valid and are imparted to the new members in the form of ways to think, feel and perceive in the organization (Nelson Quick, 2010). Three levels of organizational culture have been suggested by Edgar Schein namely artifacts, espoused values and basic assumptions. Ceremonies and rites- Nike celebrates its values with the help of ceremonies. It is strongly believed by Nike that the employees should be rewarded or compensated for their outstanding performances. This is ensured by providing rewards and benefits such as creating a positive working environment, ensuring the wellness of employees and providing them the opportunity to stay healthy and fit. Such reward occasions play an important role in motivating the employees and providing them recognition. Ceremonies such as annual meetings and conferences are held from time to time (Burkus, 2014). Stories- It includes stories regarding success and failures that play an important role in shaping organizational culture (Coe, 2017). Nike invests in their culture and offers their employees security, financial, competitive health, and work-life benefits. This in turn creates a sense of security among the employees. Nike offers opportunities for career benefits and personalized benefit options which allows an individual in attaining full potential. This has led Nike to reach new heights of success. Relocation facilities are also provided to the employees in case they find their placement at faraway places. Rituals- Nike believes in diversity and equality in the workplace. They encourage their employees to be innovative and creative by thinking out of the box. The efforts of the employees are valued by rewarding them. A positive working environment is aimed to be created by taking such steps. Symbols and Motto- Nike has a swoosh symbol that represent the wing of the renowned Greek Goddess of Victory. The motto of Nike is Just do it which encourages the employees to give their best efforts in taking the organization to new heights. Espoused Values- Espoused level is the second level of organizational culture which represent the clearly specified norms and values that are favored by an organization (Kinicki, 2008). The code of ethics of Nike provides a number of values. Nike believes that every employee must reflect their loyalty, honesty, fairness, trustworthiness, accountability and concern for others in their business. Nike is sensitive in keeping their good reputation and using good judgment in conducting business. Basic Assumptions- Basic assumptions are considered to be the most important level. The existence of Nike is for the purpose of serving athletes. Innovation is introduced in the products taking into consideration the needs of worlds best athletes. At Nike, every employee is considered to be an explorer. It is in its nature to innovate. Nike is passionate regarding believe that everyone should have the required tools for reaching their potential. Investment made by them in their employees is for inspiring new ideas, products and methods that drive the future of sport. Types of Culture Power- there are various organization in which there is centralization of power and decisions are made only by those who hold power (Persily, 2013). Nike does not have a centralization of power. It has delegated its decision making authority to the local market level. This mover towards decentralization by Nike is considered to be the reason behind rapid increase in international sales. Such decentralization has further increased the job satisfaction level of employees which in turn has subsequently reduced employee turnover (Peretz, Levi Fried, 2015). Excellent relationship is cited by the employees with management and fellow employees. Task- task culture is followed by the organization in which teams are formed for achievement of organizational goals. The working environment of Nike is similar to task culture. Every employee of Nike contributes to the achievement of the goals of the organization by providing their best efforts and ideas. Nike believes that success of the team is possible when everyone make equal contribution. Person- this type of culture puts greater emphasis on individuals. Individual specialization and expertise is essential. Nike gives greater importance to the hiring process. Biasness is completely eliminated from the critical moments of the process of hiring. The employment of individuals is completely dependent on their talent. Therefore, there is hiring of diverse individuals by supporting blind resume reviews and excluding data collection regarding the salary history for informing hiring decisions. In other words, diversity is followed in the organization. Role- It is a type of culture in which role are emphasized rather than individuals. This culture is a bureaucratic one in which rules and regulations are required to be followed strictly. This type of culture is not followed in Nike. Employees are not bound by rules and regulation instead they are given freedom for bringing their experiences, creativity and innovation. There is flexibility with respect to working hours in the organization which in turn provides the work-life balance to employees. Motivation System of Nike The guiding philosophy adopted by Nike has the power of influencing, inspiring and challenging employees on everyday basis. The employees are challenged through brainstorming sessions and group exercises for defining their possible future and the steps for reaching there. Nike invests in the providing learning and development opportunities which helps in amplifying the energy, talent and capabilities of employees. Successful employees are rewarded by Nike through excellent rewards and benefits. Competitive total compensation is offered by Nike including benefits opportunities for staying fit, ensuring wellbeing of their families and creating a positive working environment. As a multinational company, health coverage, time off, fitness center memberships, retirement savings, etc. varies in accordance with the geographic location. Total benefit package offered by Nike is dependent on location, position and years spend with company and includes paid vacation, holidays, health insurance, disability insurance, life and accident insurance, product discounts, employee stock purchase plan, retirement savings plan, transportation allowance, etc. The characteristics of corporate culture of Nike such as talented, diverse and inclusive helps in sustaining the business and market competence (Miller, Ngunjiri LoRusso, 2017). Such characteristics of the corporate culture of Nike helps in sustaining talent and infrastructure required for the production of most popular athlete shoes, apparel and equipment of the world. The diverse workforce is encouraged to openly share their ideas which facilitates the maximization of product development cycles in terms if creation of new designs for apparel, sport shoes and equipment (Christiansen Chandan, 2017). Inclusiveness is emphasized in the organizational culture of Nike Inc. which minimizes workforce problems supports streamlining apparel, athletic shoes and designs of equipment and process of production. The Role of National Culture in the Corporate Culture of Nike The total number of employees employed by Nike is estimated to be 74,400 (Statista, 2017). The largest concentration of its employees is in North America. The employees belonging to European Headquarters of Nike comes from more than 70 countries. The Greater China Campus of Nike which is Shanghai-based is home to several thousand employees. Nike Greater China is still concerned with the development of local talent along with making the discovery of varied range of candidates from the communities across the globe. Nike believes in breaking down the barriers, overcoming the differences bringing people together. The diversity of its employees is visible from the collection of its employee resource groups. Such networks assist in increasing cultural awareness, delivering career developmental experiences and demonstrating their commitment to diversity (Rice, 2015). This highlights the inclusiveness of all the communities. There are eight communities that are formed and managed by the empl oyees in Nike Inc. It includes Asia Pacific and Friends Network, Ability and Friends Network, Black Employee and Friends Network, Pride Network, Latino and Friends Network, Nike Military Veterans and Friends Network, Women of Nike and Friends Network, and Native American and Friends Network. Nike believes in unleashing the capability of every athlete by paying attention to the voices of each culture, country and community. Power Distance- Power Distance Index (PDI) is used at the time of considering the levels of inequality in the organization in terms of management styles, agreement between subordinates and superiors, etc. (Sun, 2009). In U.S., South Africa and Netherlands, the power distance is low while in other countries such as China, Chile, Brazil, Mexico, etc., the power distance is high. The world headquarters of Nike is situated in North America where there is low power distance. Therefore, this dimension does not affect Nike in North America. However, in some countries where it operates such as Mexico, Brazil, Chile, the high power distance influence its day to day working. Uncertainty Avoidance- Uncertainty avoidance refers to the preference of the country people regarding situations that offer clear rules relating to prices along with standards that govern behavior in case of uncertain changes. The employees in the offices do not want to take risk or stress in relation to the changes that have the capability of influencing their future. In U.S, Europe and Africa, the uncertainty avoidance index is low to medium which means the employees of Nike in such countries are not afraid of losing or leaving their jobs. In case they feel dissatisfaction with any of the factors such as environment, salary, working conditions, etc., they leave the job (Lee Kramer, 2016). Individualism- it means the preference of people to act as an individual or as a group or team (Hofstede, Hofstede Minkov, 2010). Individualism is high in U.S. and Africa. Employees of Nike in such countries handle the entire situation as an individual and not as a group. All the responsibilities and decisions are handled on their own. However, it is low in China, Chile, etc. where people want to act as a team. Masculinity- the higher side of this dimension represents masculinity which is defined by competitiveness and assertiveness. On the other hand, the lower side of this dimension demarcates feminine traits such as concern with the environment, laying stress on the quality of life, etc. China, South Africa and U.S. are considered to be masculine countries which in turn have subsequently increased the competitiveness among the employees. This is done with the help of excellent volunteering programs which encourages and motivates the employees to give their best for attaining a better position in the company (Luthans Doh, 2018). Long term/ Short term Orientation- this dimension is considered to be Confucian work dynamism which is dependent on the strategy of the company whether long term or short term. The goals and image of the Nike represents that the vision of such a big multinational company cannot be short term. Therefore, the location of the offices of Nike does not affect its long term vision. These dimensions assist in concluding that a significant role is played by the national culture in every multinational company. Diversity among the employees is openly accepted in Nike. Employees from all countries and cultures are given equal importance. All the employees are made comfortable at the workplace by incorporating a variety of programs that resolve their issues and queries in no time (Stahl Tung, 2015). SWOT Analysis of the Cultural Practice of Nike The Just do it approach adopted by Nike makes it a competitive organization which in turn shapes the attitude of employees towards the business. Cultural diversity is respected in Nike by emphasizing equality as an essential element of corporate culture (Downey, Werff, Thomas Plaut, 2015). Employees of Nike are motivated by offering various, financial, security, competitive health and work-life benefits. Employees want to work with the organization for attaining their full potential and personalized benefits. The work-life balance is impossible for the employees of Nike as Nike expects its employees to be available for the company 24/7. Growth of the employees in Nike is mainly dependent on networking. The company is considered to be weak in the authenticity of appraisal process. Therefore, employees finds slow growth rate in the organization. There is opportunity for Nike in improving its organizational culture by introducing programs that creates social integration among the employee (Alvesson Sveningsson, 2015). It will subsequently assist in building better community with more engaged employees. Nike should take steps for reducing the work burden on employees and allow them better growth opportunities then their competitors such as appraisal schemes. Other benefits should be offered such as savings from expenses related to work, vacations, health insurance, health savings account and employer-sponsored retirement plans. The biggest threat for the organizational culture of Nike is that the employees are switching to other companies as they find less opportunity for growth in the organization (O'Neill, Beauvais Scholl, 2016). Nike should focus on providing growth opportunities to employees in order to reduce the employee turnover otherwise it will result in heavy costs for the organization. Assessment about the Culture of Nike Analysis regarding the organizational culture of Nike provides that Nike aims to include a variety of perspectives as the contribution of each person results in the success of team. Groups are required to be formulated for characterizing the company into apparels, footwear, accessories and equipment. There are five stages of the group development model provided by Tuckman namely forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. Norming and performing stage seems to be appropriate for Nike since Nike is taking steps for resolving the differences between the employees along with taking initiatives for increasing social integration between them (Egolf, 2013). Performing stage is highlighted in the fact that Nike is able to achieve its teams goal with the help of the structures and processes set for this purpose. The different kind of views of the employees belonging to different countries, cultures and background are effectively managed in the organization by giving equal preferenc e to everyone (Guillaume, Dawson, Otaye?Ebede, Woods West, 2017). This is in turn allows effective decision making in Nike. The offices of Nike are situated in almost every part of the world. In each countrys office, employees are organized as a team for the completion of specified goals. Employees are given full freedom to express their views and suggestions regarding various issues for their improvement. As far as the type of team is concerned among problem-solving team, work group, quality team and virtual team, Nikes team comes under problem solving teams as such teams are temporary and assist in providing solution to specific problems. The makeup of the team is cross functional which helps Nike in analyzing the problem various perspectives (Uhlig, 2018). Among the four types of culture identified by Deal and Kennedy namely the tough-guy/macho culture, the work-hard/play-hard culture, the bet-your company culture and the process culture, the culture of Nike is similar to tough-guy macho culture where employees face stress as a result of high risk. Rapid feedback is provided to the employees with greater focus on their resent performance. This leads to impossibility in their work-life balance and greater frustration. Conclusion Nike is the leading company for athletic shoes, apparel and sports equipment. the organizational culture of Nike is does not have a severe impact on its working as employees understand that Nike is a multinational company which needs to handle a variety of issues in its branches across the world. The employees still want to work with Nike for gaining the experience of a multinational company. Various steps have been taken by Nike for motivating its employees including higher salaries, incentives and other benefits. The cultural equality in the workplace further motivates the employees to give their best efforts for the achievement of the organizational goals. The culture of Nike assists its employees in reaching their full potential. Recommendations The employees should be offered growth opportunities for their personal development. This should be in the form of improving the rewarding system. Increments, incentives for outstanding performances, promotions, awards, etc. should be provided to employees from time to time. This will assist in reducing the employee turnover of Nike and will significantly increase their satisfaction at workplace. The employees are expected to be available for company all the time. Nike should limit the working hours of the employees by specifying the work required to done in such time. If the employees work for extra hours, they should be offered good pay. The employee engagement can be improved with the help of communication trainings or social integration programs which will assist in team building by improving the communication skills and tolerance level of employees. References Alvesson, M. and Sveningsson, S., 2015.Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress. Routledge..Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress. Routledge. Brown, A. D. 1998. Organisational Culture. Financial Times. Burkus, D. 2014. How to Tell if Your Company Has a Creative Culture, [Online]. Available at: https://hbr.org/2014/12/how-to-tell-if-your-company-has-a-creative-culture [Accessed on: 11 April 2018]. Christiansen, B. and Chandan, H. C. 2017. Handbook of Research on Organizational Culture and Diversity in the Modern Workforce. IGI Global. Coe, C. 2017. Managing Public and Nonprofit Organizations: Stories of Success and Failure. Routledge. Downey, S.N., Werff, L., Thomas, K.M. and Plaut, V.C., 2015. The role of diversity practices and inclusion in promoting trust and employee engagement.Journal of Applied Social Psychology,45(1), pp.35-44. Driskill, G. W. and Brenton, A. L. 2010. Organizational Culture in Action: A Cultural Analysis Workbook. SAGE Publications. Egolf, D. B. 2013. Forming Storming Norming Performing: Successful Communication in Groups and Teams (Third Edition). iUniverse. Hofstede, G, Hofstede, G. J. and Minkov, M. 2010. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, Third Edition. McGraw Hill Professional. Hogan, S.J. and Coote, L.V., 2014. Organizational culture, innovation, and performance: A test of Schein's model.Journal of Business Research,67(8), pp.1609-1621. Kinicki. 2008. Organizational Behavior 3E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. Lee, Y. and Kramer, A., 2016. National Culture, Organizational Culture, and Purposeful Diversity and Inclusion Strategy. InAcademy of Management Proceedings(Vol. 2016, No. 1, p. 11858). Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510: Academy of Management. Luthans, F. and Doh, J.P., 2018.International management: Culture, strategy, and behavior. McGraw-Hill. Miller, D.W., Ngunjiri, F.W. and LoRusso, J.D., 2017. Human resources perceptions of corporate chaplains: enhancing positive organizational culture.Journal of Management, Spirituality Religion,14(3), pp.196-215. Nelson, D. L. and Quick, J. C. 2010. Organizational Behavior: Science, The Real World, and You. Cengage Learning. Nike. 2017. NIKE, INC. REPORTS FISCAL 2017 FOURTH QUARTER AND FULL YEAR RESULTS, [Online]. Available at: https://news.nike.com/news/nike-inc-reports-fiscal-2017-fourth-quarter-and-full-year-results [Accessed on: 7 April 2018]. O'Neill, J.W., Beauvais, L.L. and Scholl, R.W., 2016. The use of organizational culture and structure to guide strategic behavior: An information processing perspective.Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management,2(2). Peretz, H., Levi, A. and Fried, Y., 2015. Organizational diversity programs across cultures: effects on absenteeism, turnover, performance and innovation.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,26(6), pp.875-903. Persily, C. A. 2013. Team Leadership and Partnering in Nursing and Health Care. Springer Publishing Company. Rice, M.F., 2015.Diversity and public administration. ME Sharpe. Stahl, G.K. and Tung, R.L., 2015. Towards a more balanced treatment of culture in international business studies: The need for positive cross-cultural scholarship.Journal of International Business Studies,46(4), pp.391-414. Statista. 2017. Number of employees of Nike worldwide from 2009 to 2017, [Online]. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/243199/number-of-employees-of-nike-worldwide/ [Accessed on: 7 April 2018]. Sun, S., 2009. Organizational culture and its themes.International Journal of Business and Management,3(12), p.137. Uhlig, D. K. 2018. 5 Teams Every Organization Needs, [Online]. Available at: https://smallbusiness.chron.com/5-teams-organization-needs-33992.html [Accessed on: 13 April 2018].
Sunday, April 12, 2020
The Member of the Wedding The Member of the Wedding The Member of the Wedding by Carson McCullers is the story of an adolescent girl who triumphs over loneliness and gains maturity through an identity that she creates for herself in her mind. It is with this guise that twelve year old Frankie Addams begins to feel confident about herself and life. The author seems to indicate that one can feel good about oneself through positive thinking regardless of reality. The novel teaches that one's destiny is a self-fulfilled prophesy, seeing one's self in a certain light oftentimes creates an environment where one might become that which one would like to be. The world begins to look new and beautiful to Frankie when her older brother Jarvis returns from Alaska with his bride-to-be, Janice. The once clumsy Frankie, forlorn and lonely, feeling that she "was a member of nothing in the world" now decides that she is going to be "the member of the wedding." Frankie truly believes that she is going to be an integral part of her brother's new family and becomes infatuated with the idea that she will leave Georgia and live with Jarvis and Janice in Winter Hill. In her scheme to be part of this new unit, she dubs herself F. Jasmine so that she and the wedding couple will all have names beginning with the letters J and a. Her positive thinking induces a euphoria which contributes to a rejection of the old feeling that "the old Frankie had no we to claim.... Now all this was suddenly over with and changed. There was her brother and the bride, and it was as though when first she saw them something she had known inside of her: They are the we of me." Being a member of the wedding will, she feels, connect her irrevocably to her brother and his wife. Typical of many teenagers, she felt that in order to be someone she has to be a part of an intact, existing group, that is, Jarvis and Janice. The teen years are known as a time of soul-searching for a new and grown up identity. In an effort to find this identity teens seek to join a group. Frankie, too, is deperate for Jarvis and Janice's adult acceptance. Frankie is forced to spend the summer with John Henry, her six year old cousin, and Berenice Brown, her black cook. It is through her interactions with these two characters that the reader perceives Frankie's ascent from childhood. Before Jarvis and Janice arrive, Frankie is content to play with John Henry. When she becomes F. Jasmine and an imagined "we" of the couple, she feels too mature to have John Henry sleep over, preferring, instead, to occupy her time explaining her wedding plans to strangers in bars, a behavior she would not have considered doing before gaining this new confidence. When F. Jasmine tells her plans to Berenice, the cook immediately warns her that Jarvis and Janice will not want her to live with them. F. Jasmine smugly ignores the cook's warning that "you just laying yourself this fancy trap to catch yourself in trouble." The adolescent feels confident and cocky, refusing to believe that her plot is preposterous. After the wedding and the shattering reality that Frances (as she is now known) faces, it is evident, from the fact that their refusal doesn't crush her, that she has truly turned herself around, and that her maturity is an authentic and abiding one. At the conclusion of the story, the now confident Frances is able to plan a future for herself, by herself, which includes becoming a great writer. She, further, finds a sympathetic friend who becomes the other half of her new "we." Carson McCullers brilliantly portrays a teenage girl's maturation through a fabricated feeling of belonging, which ultimately leads to a true belonging. The reader sees how the girl grows from a childish "Frankie," to a disillusioned "F. Jasmine," and eventually to a matured Frances. When F. Jasmine questions Berenice as to why it is illegal to change one's name without consent of the court, the cook insightfully responds, "You have a name and one thing after another happens to you, and you behave in various ways and do various things, so that soon the name begins to have a meaning." No matter how we might change externals, it is only when our innermost feelings are altered that we truly change and grow.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Beyond The Chocolate War essays Beyond The Chocolate War, a novel written by Robert Cormier is the compelling sequel to The Chocolate War. Robert Cormier is a successful writer who pictures the typical lives of everyday people with extraordinary talent. He is also the author of After The First Death the set novel for year 10 this year. As the names suggest, these books revolve around the same classification: conflict however these are not your common books about pure physical war and battle but it adresses the other side of conflict - the thoughts racing though the characters minds. He very carefully nurtures the plot and story through not only the actions but the thinking of people to build up to a complex climax. The genre of Beyond The Chocolate War is a psychological thriller that deals with the darker side side of human nature. The novel considers real life situations exaggerated for more effect is a very psychological manner. The dilemmas and predicaments experienced by the many characters in the story are expressed via the battle with their own mind, their decisions and the outcomes of their decisions afterwards. There are many themes in Beyond The Chocolate War that all contribute to the composition on the story. Relationships, sexual desires, fighting, revenge, murder, rape, assault, anxiety/distress/trouble (very much so), rebellion, suicide, school values, secret societies and authority. The were numerous examples of relationships and sexual desires with the main character (Obie) having a girlfriend and other people lusting after her. Fighting was not used much - like brain over brawn although there were some fights involving physical violence and injury between students. The strong jocks and students who had built stature's were made to be in a lesser class, easily manipulated and "dopey" despite their physique. The plot of the story was also largely based on revenge with many of the characters devising devious plans as vengeance against one of the ...
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Hinduism And Its Features - Essay Example Shaivism is known for systematic philosophy in its texts. For Shaivites, human predicament is full of differentiation and bondage. Many experience discrimination and restrictions. This is caused by superficial knowledge. They suppose that the truth is not attained because individuals are blinded by what they can only understand through their basic senses. Hence, the goal is to reach ultimate consciousness. This is characterized by enlightenment and freedom. Armed with this higher truth, people can be liberated from false perceptions. Vaishnavism asserts that literature should be interpreted more metaphorically than literally. Vaishnavites consider human predicament as depicted by unhappiness or false happiness. In addition, people do not experience the true essence of love. This is so because of greed and temporary pursuits. Therefore, the goal is to be united with the Supreme Being. When this happens, genuine love and happiness may be fulfilled. This can then be realized through renunciation of material fondness by prioritizing on spiritual development. After disciplined practice, divine maturation ensues and is followed by perfection. Like other beliefs, Hinduism generally aims to improve existence. Both Shaivism and Vaishnavism have religious goals for improvement. Though they may have variations, they believe in manÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities. Indeed, man has its numerous limits. Nonetheless, he also has the capacity to achieve greatness.